A collaborative study led by investigators at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of Alabama showed that individuals who scored higher on a test designed to measure depressive symptoms had a higher stroke risk than those with lower scores.
The study involved 9,529 black and 14,516 white stroke-free participants, age 45 and older, enrolled in the UAB-led REGARDS study which is a national longitudinal study designed to examine risk factors associated with racial and regional disparities in stroke incidence and mortality.
Depressive symptoms were assessed using the four-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-4), administered during a baseline evaluation of each participant.
There were 1,262 strokes over an average follow-up of nine years among the study cohort. Compared to participants with no depressive symptoms, participants with CES-D-4 scores of one to three had a 39 percent increased stroke risk after demographic adjustment. Participants with CES-D-4 scores of more than four experienced a 54 percent higher risk of stroke after demographic adjustment. There was no evidence of a differential effect by race.
"There are a number of well-known risk factors for stroke, such as high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, but we are beginning to understand that there are nontraditional risk factors as well, and depressive symptoms looms high on that list," said Virginia Howard, PhD, professor in the Department of Epidemiology in the UAB School of Public Health and senior author of the paper.
One goal of the study was to see if depressive symptoms might help explain the increased risk that black populations have for stroke, especially in the southern United States.
"The results have been mixed among the few studies that enrolled Black participants and examined race and depressive symptoms in relation to stroke," said Cassandra Ford, PhD, RN, Capstone College of Nursing at the University of Alabama and the study's first author. "Depression often goes undetected and undiagnosed in black patients, who are frequently less likely to receive effective care and management. These findings suggest that further research needs to be conducted to explore nontraditional risk factors for stroke. The implications of our findings underscore the importance of assessing for this risk factor in both populations."
The takeaway, according to Howard, is that medical professionals need to recognize that stroke risk from depressive factors is high.
"As nurses, we care for the entire person," Ford said. "When a patient has a particular condition, such as diabetes, hypertension or stroke, that is the focus of diagnosis and care. Our study provides support for considering nontraditional risk factors during patient assessment, particularly conducting some mental health screenings."